HCJ Revison, Newspaper Influences

May 24, 2010



Discuss the economic, demographic, political, technological and sociological factors influencing the development of newspaper and periodical journalism 1815-1919.

Economic:

The economy was drastically changing, liberalism and free trade is introduced. Capitalism is at its peak.

Demographic:

Migration was massive. Not only where people moving around in their own countries to flock to cities to look for work, they were migrating to other countries (such as America –New York) in hope of making a new life. The news papers cashed in on this, there was a bigger audience all in one area. The creation of simple newspaper language was created in aid of allowing immigrants to understand the paper.

Technology:

Technologic advances in printing, photography and transition of news in the era has made the newspaper what it is today.

The use of the flat Gutenbergs machine was used to print papers from 1816. The use of pressure from a hand lever created 150-200 impressions an hour.

Cylindrical pressing was invented 1825, increasing output from 400 to 2000 impressions per hour.

1830’s- paper machines invented, which made paper cheaper.

1832- twin press

In the 1835 the creation of the steam press enabled mass production. The steam train also gave the newspapers a bigger audience.

1860’s the telegraph wire was created, and a new way of communication was created. News could now travel across the country in a few minuets.

Pictures- The first pictures where printed with wooden incisor forms. In 1859 in Paris invented zincography - engraving on zinc. Greyscale printing was created in 1886.

Sociological: Liberalism and capitalism was popular in America. Immigration created a completely new society of mixed races and languages. The lower classes were now the mass media as they were able to read and write (at a low level), so newspapers targeted them.

Political: There were no laws on censorship, so the papers could print what they wanted and not need to pay for it. There were also no newspaper taxes.

-Picture: Hogarth's Women, virtue and vice in 18th century England.