HCJ Exam Notes

December 16, 2010


Totalitarianism is ruling through terror.

Society will not fight back against the dictator.

Nothing is individual, everything is part of the masses (Ardent)

Teleology is when people use God as the reason behind everything.

Pluralism is when there is a tolerance of different races, religions etc.

Nietzsche does not like the idea of society of diplomacy.

Some intellectuals want to exterminate the masses.

The masses gave in to fascism and were being manipulated by people like Goering.

The Media gave a Hegelian outlook on the war in Europe.

Reich wanted to eliminate the mob as they were slowing down societies progress.

John Carey means masses as 'the mob'. The masses is what happeneds when the mob become literate. mass media to mass circulation is what makes the mob a political force.

Carey says the art and literature being too difficult for the mob to understand keeps them at bay as the more intelligent they became, they more power they'd have to overthrow the hierarchy.

Nietzsche wanted to keep the masses controlled and illiterate because of this. Life under the masses was suicide, his idea of the master race.

The media would never report any losses of battles but often did the opposite to boost morale. This keeps the mob in check as the media would tell them what to think; no individual thought was allowed.

Stalin and Hitler controlled society through communism and Nazi regime. Communism was exterminating the class struggle.

Mass genocide of the Jews. - they were seen not to belong to a country and were 'inbred'. The Jews took over the financial sector in the 17th/18th cents but after the French revolution they were deprived of this power to the state and society.


Modern state, literacy. We now have universal literacy.

Max Vaber- 'the state is the monopoly of the legitimate force'.

The modern state has much more control such as the media being a huge weapon in controlling what people think.

Medieval states controlled societies normally through their monarchs; 'the divine rights of kings' in England, for example, meant society believed God has chosen them t rule in a teleological society.

Nationalism is like patriotism, they want to defend their state and their government/monarchy.

Hobbes- Without state ruling everything everyone would try and kill each other, rape etc. (Freud)

believed we must submit ourselves to the state for protection. Without the state nature would rule without harsh state intervention. Believed in a strong powerful state to do this or the law of the jungle will prevail.

Rousseau- Liberal. Believes in a social contract between the public and the state so that they had limited power. The state should listen to the general will of the people and anyone who did not want to be free would be forced to be free. Romantic. Contradicts Hobbes.

J.s.mill: classic liberal like Rousseau. Believes people should be able to do what they want as long as no one else is harmed in any way. Freedom of speech. Didn't believe in censorship. Believes the same as Hobbes and Hegel but does not believe in God.

Hegel: Believes Germany and the prussian state were doing the will of god and is the natural way of the world. (teleological states) teleological element.

Locke: civil rights to property. People should be free to do what they want.

Marx: Doesn’t believe god exists. The state is a tool to oppress the masses.

3: modernist literal movement-

We now have tabloid headlines.

Nietzsche is very incoherent, no linear and leave it up to the reader t make their mind up about his writing, like abstract art.

Slogans were a Nietzsche idea.

Phenomenology means that everything and everything what happened is a phenomena. Nothing is moral good or bad, it just happened.

Amorality is where you are told what you're feeling and what is happening. 'god is dead', we are just here and we don't know why (modernism)

Modern journalism is centred on telling the acts and not moralising what has happened.

Nietzsche: if they are 'cool' the reader can make an individual meaning, if they are hot they are imposing the meaning.

New journalism made it possible to write facts and not speculate.

Sensational writing- saying what you see.

James Joyce's Ulysses is a modern literacy- lets you make up your mind rather than telling you what to think. (like modern art)

4: The film was loosely based on William Randolph Hearst's life.

Hearst rose from nothing an manipulated people for power. He will always crave more power. Freud may say he did this as he had none in his childhood and was driven by his needs.

John Carey-intellectuals-Hearst was not an intellectual but he rose through the ranks. He then had the money to organise the mob through the media. He gained power through the mob following the mass media.

Rosebud- his childhood desires-an objective he can never quiet reach.

WRH is Carey's theory in action, a semi-literate member of the masses gaining power through literacy.

Hearst's yellow journalism was the first of its kind. Introduced short, punchy headlines. Newspaper slang. Papers able to be understood by the lower classes and immigrants.

Perfect example of why the intellectuals are scared of the masses.

Freud- Hearst was never accepted by his mum and was put up for adoption. Never able to obtain rosebud so buys lots of material possessions to make up for it.


idea's like getting in touch with your feminine side.

Men were not breast fed in the 40's so there was a stigma attached to breasts, so they wanted to look at them etc.

Cosmo_ feminism and sex. Empowering women.

Jerry S- The ID is taking control, they lash out. Shows those who are repressed. 1) Reptilian brain: Motor movement, rage, attack appetite.

Super nanny- Freud's child psychology.

Freud's idea that everyone is fascinated by sex is reflected in advertising.

Mind divided into 3 distinct part which are in direct conflict:

ID -From birth,k animal part of the brain, instincts. Operates on the pleasure principle.

Ego or Self-reality principle -The origin of consciousness, the ‘how to’ on satisfying pleasures.

Super Ego Internalised rules of parents or society; the policeman in your head theory (Reich).

The Oedipus theory- sleep with your mother , kill your father.

The battle between the super ego, ego and Id can result in:

Repression: (censorship) and defence mechanisms.

Sublimation: turning sexual en energy into something else (sport, art etc).

Displacement: shameful thoughts, turn them into something else/someone else.

Projection: sends feelings into someone else.

Rationalisation: more society acceptable explanation.

Regression: returning to an earlier stage of development.

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